Macam – Macam Resiko dalam Berwirausaha

Mesothelioma Compensation Some people who develop mesothelioma due to asbestos exposure may be able to claim compensation. Your legal entitlements will depend on the state or territory in which you were exposed to asbestos. In some cases, the exposure may have occurred overseas. Mesothelioma takes a long time to develop, so your exposure to asbestos may have occurred some 40 years ago. You might think it was a trivial exposure, or you may not remember any exposure. Talking to your friends and family can help to bring back memories of places where you may have been exposed to asbestos. An expert lawyer will also talk you through your life history and help you find out where the exposure took place. They will explain what compensation you may be able to claim and help make the process easy for you to understand. Generally, a person diagnosed with mesothelioma has two different types of legal entitlements: a claim through the court, known as a "common law claim" a claim under a government compensation scheme, known as a "statutory claim". "When my husband was diagnosed with terminal mesothelioma, we were advised to apply for compensation. He reluctantly contacted lawyers, and they assured us we had a very strong case. My husband didn't survive to `win' his case but I did, with a lot of help, caring, understanding and good advice from our lawyers." – Sharon Common law claim A common law claim is a claim process through a court. The claim is brought against the party or parties who caused a person to be exposed to asbestos. These parties are known as the "defendants". A common law claim begins by filing a formal court document known as an "originating process". The originating process must be lodged within your lifetime to protect your entitlement to compensation. As long as you start a common law claim during your lifetime, your estate will still be able to continue with your claim if you die before the claim is finalised. You need to speak with a lawyer experienced in asbestos-related compensation claims as soon as possible after your diagnosis. If you're too unwell to visit the lawyer in their office, they can visit you at home or in hospital to discuss the process and how it can be simplified for you and your family. t may still be possible to bring a common law claim even if: you were exposed to asbestos many years ago you no longer work for the employer where you were exposed you have worked for many employers you were self-employed or a contractor your employer is no longer in business you are, or were, a smoker you were exposed to asbestos in another state or overseas you were not exposed in the workplace you were only briefly exposed to asbestos you were exposed to asbestos on more than one occasion you don't know how you may have been exposed to asbestos. Finding a lawyer Making a mesothelioma claim is a specialised area. It is important to talk to a lawyer or law firm experienced in this area of work, as they often have a wealth of knowledge about how and where asbestos was used. You can find a leading lawyer in asbestos by checking the Doyles Guide Directory – visit doylesguide.com/australia and type "asbestos" in the search bar. Mesothelioma support organisations can also assist you in contacting an expert asbestos lawyer. Talking to an expert in this field can help reduce the time taken to investigate a claim. Experienced lawyers also understand mesothelioma and what you are coping with. Your lawyer will work around medical appointments or treatments to try to make things less stressful for you. How long will a common law case take? The majority of common law claims for mesothelioma are settled out of court within 3–6 months of the claim being lodged. If your prognosis is poor, or you suddenly become very unwell, the process can be sped up to try to ensure that your common law claim is resolved in your lifetime. Only a few cases actually proceed to a court trial. What if I die before my claim is settled? Many people diagnosed with mesothelioma worry that their claim won't be finalised before they die. The largest component of compensation is usually the general damages. So long as you start a common law claim in your lifetime, then your entitlement to general damages is protected, and your estate would be able to continue with your claim if you die before your claim is finalised. In some circumstances, your family may also be entitled to dependency entitlements if you die because of the mesothelioma. Your lawyer will let you know if this applies to you and your family. How much does legal action cost? Legal costs are generally dependent on the amount of legal work required to resolve your case. Most lawyers who specialise in asbestos-related compensation claims offer a "no win, no fee" agreement. This means that the lawyers will only charge for legal services if they are successful in resolving your case. You are also entitled to claim a large portion of your legal costs from the defendants as part of your common law claim. The amount of costs awarded will depend on whether your case was resolved at mediation or at trial. Ask your lawyer for a costs agreement and get them to talk it through with you so you know what is involved. Be aware that even under a "no win, no fee" agreement, if you: start a claim but decide to cease the action, you will usually need to pay any legal costs up to that point proceed but lose the court case, you will not need to pay your lawyer, but you may still need to pay court costs for yourself and possibly for the defendant are successful, a significant portion of your compensation might be absorbed by any costs that the defendant doesn't have to pay. Statutory claims Some states and territories have special government compensation schemes for people who develop mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases. These schemes usually apply only if you have been exposed to asbestos during your employment. he authorities for Australia's asbestos compensation schemes are: ACT – WorkSafe ACT, call 02 6207 3000 or visit worksafe.act.gov.au NSW – Dust Diseases Authority, also known as icare dust diseases are, call 02 8223 6600 or visit icare.nsw.gov.au NT – NT WorkSafe, call 1800 019 115 or visit worksafe.nt.gov.au QLD – WorkCover Queensland, call 1300 362 128 or visit worksafe.qld.gov.au SA – ReturnToWorkSA, call 13 18 55 or visit rtwsa.com TAS – WorkSafe Tasmania, call 1300 366 322 or visit worksafe.tas.gov.au VIC – WorkSafe Victoria, call 1800 136 089 or visit worksafe.vic.gov.au WA – Your employer's insurer or if unknown, Insurance Commission of estern Australia, call 08 9264 3333 or visit icwa.wa.gov.au Commonwealth – Comcare, call 1300 366 979 or visit comcare.gov.au. Do I need a lawyer? It is possible for you and sometimes your dependants to lodge a statutory claim directly with the authority in your state or territory. However, most people with mesothelioma prefer to use a lawyer to arrange all their claims. The laws around Australia vary and can be complex. Some people may be entitled to bring a common law claim instead of, or in addition to, a statutory claim. It is vital to consult an expert asbestos lawyer before applying for statutory benefits to ensure you aren't excluded from also claiming common law compensation. Using an expert asbestos lawyer will allow you to access all your entitlements while concentrating on your health and spending time on the things that are important to you. Advance care planning It is also worth seeking the advice of a lawyer to ensure your will is up to date and that your intentions for your estate are clear. You may wish to arrange legal documents appointing a substitute decision-maker. Depending on where you live, the documents for appointing this person may be known as an enduring power of attorney, enduring power of guardianship, or appointment of an enduring guardian. You can also outline your wishes for your future medical care in an advance care directive. These documents are part of advance care planning. Cancer Council offers a Legal Referral Service that can help with wills and advance care planning, and assistance is free for eligible clients. Call 13 11 20 to find out more.


1. Menurut sifatnya dibedakan dalam :

  • Resiko murni, yaitu resiko yang terjadi pasti akan menimbulkan kerugian dan terjadinya tanpa disengaja. Misal:  kebakaran, kebanjiran, bencana alam, pencurian dsb.
  • Resiko speculatif, yaitu resiko yng sengaja ditimbulkan oleh yang bersangkutan agar memberikan keuntungan bagi pihak tertantu. Contoh:  utang-piutang, perdagangan berjangka, pembelian saham dsb.
  • Resiko fundamental, yaitu resiko yang penyebabnya tidak bisa dilimpahkan kepada seseorang  dan menderita cukup banyak. Misal: banjir, gempa bumi, gunung meletus dsb.
  • Resko Khusus, yaitu resiko yang bersumber pada peristiwa yang mandiri dan umumnya mudah diketahui penyebabnya, misal : kapal kandas, pesawat jatuh, dsb.
  • Resiko dinamis, yaitu resiko yang timbul karen perkembangan dan kemajuan masyarakat dibidang ekonomi, ilmu pengetahuan,,teknologi, contoh: resiko penerbangan luar angkasa, nuklir dsb.

  • 2. Menurut dapat tidaknya resiko dialihkan kepada pihak lain (diasuransikan).
    • Resiko yang dapat dialihkan pada pihak lain, dengan mempertanggungkan suatu obyek yang akan terkena resiko pada perusahaan asuransi.
    • Resiko yang tidak dapat dialihkan pada pihak lain, misal barang-barang purbakala, barang bersejarah.
    3.  Menurut sumber/penyebab timbulnya.
    • Resiko intern, yaitu resiko yang berasal dari dalam perusahaan itu sendiri, contoh: keusakan aktiva karena kesalahan karyawan itu sendiri (kecelakaan kerja)
    • Resiko ekstern, yaitu resiko yang berasal dari luar perusahaan itu, misal: pencurian, persaingan bisnis, fluktuasi harga dsb.

    Upaya penanggulangan/meminimumkan resiko berdasar pada sifat dan obyek yang terkena resiko.
    1. Dengan mengadakan pencegahan dan pengurangan kemungkinan terjadinya peristiwa yang menimbulkan kerugian.
    2. Melakukan retensi, yakni mentolerir terjadinya kerugian.
    3. Melakukan pengendalian terhadap resiko.
    4. Mengalihkan resiko kepada pihak lain (untuk harta kekayaan kepada asuransiKERUGIAN dan untuk kryawannya kepada  asuransi  JAMSOSTEK)

    Macam-macam resiko dalam berusaha dan upaya/cara menanggulangi/memperkecil  resiko yang bersangkutan.

    Resiko Teknis.
    Resiko ini terjadi akibat kekurangmampuan manajer/wirausaha dalam mengambil keputusan.
    Resiko yang sering terjadi adalah :

    • Biaya produksi yang tinggi (inefisien),
    • Pemakaian sumber-sumber daya yang tidak seimbang, misal terlalu banyak tenaga kerja.
    • Sering terjadi pencurian, akibat pengawasan/penjagaan yang kurang baik.
    • Sering terjadi kebakaran, target produksi tak tercapai, penempatan tenaga tidak tepat/tidak sesuai, perencanaan dan desain produk salah dsb.
    Upaya mengatasi/menanggulangi resiko teknis:
    • Menajer/wirausaha harus menambah pengetahuan tentang:
    1. Ketrampilan teknis /technological skill, terutama yang berkaitan dengan proses produksi. Diupayakan dengan memakai metode yang dapat menurunkan biaya produksi, misal dengan teknologi tepat guna /modern.
    2. Ketrampilan mengorganisasi /organization skill , yaitu kemampuan meramu yang tepat dari faktor-faktor produksi dalam melakukan usahanya
    3. Ketrampilan memimpin/managerial skill, yaitu kemampuan untuk mencapai tujuan usaha dan dapat dikerjakan dengan baik dan serasi oleh semua orang yang ada pada organisasi tsb. Untuk ini setiap pimpinan dituntut membuat konsep kerja yang baik/conceptional skill.
    • Membuat strategi usaha yang terarah untuk masa depan, yang meliputi strategi produksi, strategi keuangan, strategi sumber daya(SDA dan SDM), strategi operasional, strategi pemasaran, dan strategi penelitia dan pengembangan. Tujuan strategi ini ada tiga yaitu ; tetap memperoleh keuntungan, hari depan tetap lebih baik dari sekarang (usaha berkembang) dan tetap bertahan (survive). Upaya yang dilakukan adalah keandalan menganalisis dan memprognosa keadaan didalam dan diluar lingkup organisasi.
    • Mengalihkan kerugian pada perusahaan asuransi, dengan konsekuensi setiap saat harus membayar premi asuransi yang akan menjadi pengeluaran biaya.

    baca juga : RESIKO YANG DI HADAPI WIRAUSAHA

    Resiko Pasar
    Resiko ini terjadi akibat produk yang dihasilkan kurang laku atau tidak laku dipasar. Produk telah menjadi kuno (absolensense) yang diperoleh terus menurun dan terjadi kerugian. Akibatnya penerimaan/revenue yang diperoleh terus menurun dan terjadi kerugianterus. Hal ini akan menjadi bencana usaha yang berakibat usahanya sampai diterminal alias gulung tikar.
    Upaya yang dapat ditempuh pengusaha adalah sbb.:

    1. Mengadakan inovasi produk/product inovation, yaitu membuat desain baru dari produk yang disenangi calon pembeli. Dalam usaha pertanian, misal budidaya kelinci, lele dumbo,asparagus dsb. Relatif sulit untuk inovasi, tetapi hal ini akan dipermudah bila ada upaya kearah agro industri.
    2. Mengadakan penelitian pasar/market research untuk memperoleh informasi pasar secara berkisinambungan. Cara ini memerlukan dana yang cukup besar dan hanya layak untuk perusahaan besar, misal pabrik mobil, tekstil, perabot rumah tangga, dan hiburan. Sedang dalam bidang pertanian hal ini cukup berat dilakukan.
    Baca Juga : Apa itu Marketing

    Resiko Kredit
    Adalah resiko yang ditanggung kreditor akibat debitor tidak mampu membayar pinjaman sesuai waktu yang telah disepakati. Sering terjadi produsen menaruh produknya lebih dulu dan dibayar kemudian. Atau debitor meminjam uang untuk usaha tetapi usahanya gagal, akibatnya timbul kredit macet.
    Upaya untuk mengatasi hal tersebut (resiko kredit) diantarnya dengan cara sebagai berikut :
    1. Berikan kredit pada seseorang yang minimal memenuhi syarat sbb: 
    • Dapat dipercaya,(character), yaitu watak dan reputasi yang telah diketahui
    • Kemampuan untuk membayar (capcity), hal ini dapat dilihat dari kemampuan/hasil yang diperoleh dari usahanya (laba usaha).
    • Kemampuan modal sendiri yang ditempatkan dalam usaha (capital) sehingga merupakan net personal assets.
    • Keadaan usahanya selama ini (conditions) adalah menunjukan trend naik mendatar atau menurun.
        2. Jangan memberikan pinjaman yang terlalu besar sambil mengevaluasi
            kredibilitas debitor.
        
        3. Memperhatikan pengelolaan dana debitor bila yang bersangkutan memiliki
            perusahaan. Dan yang perlu diperhatikan adalah lembaran neraca, laporan
            laba-rugi tahunan dan aliran Dana setiap tahunnya.

    Resiko Alam.
    Resiko ini terjadi diluar pengetahuan dan kemampuan manusia, misalnya gempa bumi,banjir,anginputing beliung, kemarau panjang dsb. Karena peristiwa ini kemungkinan sangat kecil resikonya dapat dianggap tidak ada, tetapi bila takut menghadapi resiko tersebut,ada perusahaan asuransi yang berani menanggung resiko tersebut


    Baca juga : Strategi Pemasaran

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